The diagram below illustrates the main components of a tyre.
The tread is the part of the tyre that makes contact with the road's surface. Tread should have strong resistance to wear and cutting. It should also be strong enough to resist external impact and generate little heat.
Carcass refers to the internal cord layer of the tyre that sustains load and absorbs shock. The carcass must have a strong anti-fatigue attribute that inhibits bending and stretching during driving.
Bead wraps around the end part of the cord and connects the tyre to the rim. Bead is composed of bead wire and a core rubber (APEX).
Belt is made of steel wire or fabric, and mitigates road impact while driving by widening tread part to improve driving stability.
Capply is a special cord adhered on the belt that improves performance while driving and prevents breakaway of belt.
Sidewall refers to the side part of the tyre that protects the carcass and improves driving comfort by bending and stretching.
Shoulder refers to the area starting from the tread edge to the upper part of the sidewall. It requires excellent heat protection to be effective.
Groove on the tread improves steering stability, towing power, and braking performance.
Apex minimizes bead distraction and shock.
Inner Liner is adhered to the inner part of tyre. It consists of a special rubber that prevents air leaks.